Energy and alternative Feedstocks
Energy, water and feedstock are essential for any chemical or biotechnology conversion. As some of these resources are becoming scarce, new methods for efficient use are being introduced. This includes energy efficient transformations and operations as well as the temporary storage of energy in the form of electricity or heat. Renewable energy resources that produce electricity depending on weather conditions rather than in response to demand may create a temporary and regional surplus of energy. This can be usefully employed for the production of basic chemicals as well as for conversion of unconventional feedstock such as CO2. With the availability of shale gas in the US, coal in China and biomass in Southeast Asia and South America, the choice of feedstock has become much broader and may vary according to region and over time.